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What is adolescence?

Adolescence is derived from the Latin word adolescere, Meaning ‘to grow’. Adolescence is the transitional stage of physical and psychological development, that takes place in a child till it grows into a full fleged adult. Adolescence period extends from the unset of puberty till the time the sexual maturation is completed. The ages of onset of puberty and sexual maturation vary widely in different individuals, depending on the genetic and environmental factors. Usual age of puberty in girls is 10 years (Range 8-13 Years). Usual age of puberty in boys is 12 years (Range 10-15 Years)

3 Steps Of Adolescence

Adolescence can be divided into 3 stages –

1. Pre-pubescent or early adolescence

Age range – Girls – 10 to 12 years.

Boys – 12 to 14 years.

2. Pubescent or middle adolescence

Age range – Girls – 12 to 14 years.

Boys – 14 to 1416 years.

3. Post-pubescent or late adolescence

Age range – Girls – 14 to 16 years.

Boys – 16 to 20 years.

After passing all these stages and undergoing complete sexual maturity, a child becomes a proper adult.

Physical changes in girls during adolescence.
there are numerous physical and mental changes in the girls of the adolescent is group. This changes are due to the various hormonal changes take ng place in the child’s body. This changes take place gradually over a period of 10 years ago to 16 years age. Let’s discuss this changes-
1. First there is increase in height and weight of the girl.
2. Then the breast development starts. This process is also known as thelarche.
3. Then the pubic hairs and the hairs of armpit starts growing.This process is also known as adrenarche.
4. Next starts the menstruation.The starting of the first period in a girl’s life is known as menarche.
5. A feminine look of the body developes due to fat deposition an the breast and thighs. The thighs become more curved and converging.
6. The tone of voice becomes high pitched.
7. There are growth and development in the internal female sexual organs like the ovary and uterus. The pelvis becomes wider.
It’s a taboo to speak publicly about this issue in many parts of the world. But time has changed now. It’s important to take care of the female problems also, otherwise we will be neglecting a precious part of our society.
What is menstruation?
Menstruation is the monthly discharge of blood from the vagina due to internal physiological changes in the female body. It is a natural process which starts at puberty(10-16 years of age) and continues till menopause (45-50 years of age). This is the result of various hormonal changes inside the female body.
Process of menstruation-
The internal sexual organs of a female body consists of a pair of ovaries and an uterus. Ovaries contain the egg cells and the uterus provides shelter and nourishment to the baby if a female becomes pregnant. During specific date, each month an egg cell is released from one ovary. This process is known as ovulation. After coming out of the ovary it stays in the fallopian tubes(which is a part of the uterus) for about 24 hours. Now, two things can happen-
1. The egg cell meets a sperm cell. This is known as fertilization. so pregnancy occurs. The cells gradually grow to become a baby.
2. If the egg cell don’t get fertilized by a sperm cell, then bleeding from the uterus occurs. This process is menstruation. Bleeding usually occurs 14 days after ovulation.
Now, you all are guessing from where did the blood come? Well, for that we need to know a bit about the uterus. Every month the uterus prepares itself to receive a baby. The inner lining of the uterus become soft and thick due to the increased amount of blood and tissues in this part. If pregnancy occurs then the fertilized egg gets implanted in this soft lining of the uterus and the baby developes. If pregnancy do not occur then the inner lining of the uterus breaks down which leads to menstrual flow from the vagina.
Menstrual cycle-
It is the time span extending from the beginning of the first period to the beginning of the next period. Once, the period starts at puberty, it continues at the interval of 21-35 days till the menopause. Normally period stays for 4-5 days. The blood loss in each period is 20 ml to 80ml. The unfertilized egg cell also comes out with the menstrual blood. The date if period varies among individuals.
Some factors controlling the onset of menstruation-
Genetic- A girl will have menses at an early age, if her mother also had early menses.
Nutrition-A girl having good nourishment will have menses earlier than a girl having poor nourishment.
Bodyweight- Overweight girls tend to get their first period earlier than thin girls
Psychologic state- A girl having lots of stress and tension will have delayed menses compared to a girl having healthy mental state.
Exposure to the sunlight-Girls living in tropical countries gets their periods earlier than girls of other countries.
Physical changes in boys during adolescence:
Boys too undergoes numerous physical and mental changes during adolescence. The changes takes place gradually between the age of 11 to 18 years. The changes are due to the internal hormonal changes. Let’s discuss the changes-
1) Voice-the voice becomes deeper due to the growth of the vocal chords.
2) Internal sexual organs- internal sexual organs consisting of sentinel vesicle, prostrate, bulbourethral glands grows and start to secrete. Fructose starts appearing in the semen.
3) External sexual organs- the penis increase in size, there is growth of the tested and the scrotum. The skin of the scrotum becomes pigmented and puckered.
4) Hair- there is recession of the hairline at the sides of the forehead. Beard, pubic hairs, hairs on chest and armpit starts growing.
5) skin- due to the increased our secretions from the sebaceous glands of face, the face becomes oily and there are frequent breakouts of acne on the face.
6) Physical appearance- the structure of the body becomes manly gradually. The muscle mass increase. The shoulders gets broader and the hips and waist remain narrow.
7) The height increases rapidly.
8) Discharge of semen in dreams, also known as night pollution. This occurs 1-2 times in a month if the boy dosen’t masturbate regularly.


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